Autors: Gechev, T. M., Punov, P. B.
Title: Driving strategy for minimal energy consumption of an ultra-energy-efficient vehicle in Shell Eco-marathon competition
Keywords: Ultra-energy-efficient vehicle, energy consumption, driving

Abstract: The paper focuses on the different driving strategies (driving cycles) for minimisation of the energy consumption of an ultra-energy-efficient electric vehicle developed by students for Shell Eco-marathon competition. The vehicle runs on hydrogen fuel and completes a set track with a 1420 m length and zero vertical deviation which is used for the 2019 European edition of the contest. A dynamic simulation model of the vehicle is developed taking into account vehicle resistance forces. A simplified model of the propulsion system is also described and used in the simulation. The propulsion system consists of a hydrogen fuel cell with a 1 kW rated power output, electric motors, electric converters, motor controllers and transmission. Furthermore, a strategy overview is proposed by which the vehicle complies with all necessary strategy limitations deriving from the competition rules.


  1. European Commission 2016 A European Strategy for low-emission mobility Transp. Emiss COM (2016) 501. Accessed on 14.07.2020
  2. European Energy Agency 2015 Final energy consumption by sector and fuel Indic. Assess. Data maps ENER 016 (2020) Accessed on 14.07.2020
  3. European Commission 2019 Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Eur. Comm. Accessed on 14.07.2020
  4. Fontaras G, Zacharof N G and Ciuffo B 2017 Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Europe – Laboratory versus real-world emissions Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 60 pp 97–131
  5. Parliament E U and E 2019 Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars Regulation (EC) No 443 (2009) Accessed on 14.07.2020
  6. Pasaoglu G, Honselaar M and Thiel C 2012 Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe Energy Policy 40 pp 404–21
  7. Xu R, Chou L C and Zhang W H 2019 The effect of CO2 emissions and economic performance on hydrogen-based renewable production in 35 European Countries Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 44(56) pp 29418–25
  8. Ehsani M, Gao Y and Emadi A 2017 Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles (CRC Press) p 348, p 22
  9. Wang Y, Chen K S, Mishler J, Cho S C and Adroher X C 2011 A review of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Technology, applications, and needs on fundamental research Appl. Energy 88(4) pp 981–1007
  10. Bendjedia B, Rizoug N, Boukhnifer M and Bouchafaa F 2017 Hybrid Fuel Cell/Battery Source Sizing and Energy Management for Automotive Applications IFAC-PapersOnLine 50(1) pp 4745–50
  11. Fathabadi H 2018 Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV): Novel fuel cell/SC hybrid power generation system Energy Convers. Manag. 156 pp 192–201
  12. Marzougui H, Amari M, Kadri A, Bacha F and Ghouili J 2017 Energy management of fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor in electrical hybrid vehicle Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42 pp 8857–69
  13. Carignano M G, Costa-Castelló R, Roda V, Nigro N M, Junco S and Feroldi D 2017 Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand J. Power Sources 360 pp 419–33
  14. Veneri O, Capasso C and Patalano S 2018 Experimental investigation into the effectiveness of a super-capacitor based hybrid energy storage system for urban commercial vehicles Appl. Energy 227 pp 312–23
  15. Gaikwad S D and Ghosh P C 2020 Sizing of a fuel cell electric vehicle: A pinch analysis-based approach Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 45(15) pp 8985–93
  16. Kaya K and Hames Y 2019 Two new control strategies: For hydrogen fuel saving and extend the life cycle in the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 44 pp 18967–80
  17. Olivier J-C, Wasselynck G, Chevalier S, Auvity B, Josset C, Trichet D, Squadrito G and Bernard N 2017 Multiphysics modeling and optimization of the driving strategy of a light duty fuel cell vehicle Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42 pp 26943–55
  18. Dobrev, I., Massouh, F., Danlos, A., Todorov, M. D, Punov, P. B, 2017,MATEC Web of Conferences, BulTrans-2017: Experimental and numerical study of the flow field around a small car, Sozpol, Bulgaria, pp.


IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 1002, issue 1, pp. 012018, 2020, Bulgaria, IOP Publishing Ltd, DOI 10.1088/1757-899X/1002/1/012018

Copyright IOP Publishing Ltd

Full text of the publication

Цитирания (Citation/s):
1. Behzadi, A., Habibollahzade, A., Arabkoohsar, A., Shabani, B., Fakhari, I., Vojdani, M., 4E analysis of efficient waste heat recovery from SOFC using APC: An effort to reach maximum efficiency and minimum emission through an application of grey wolf optimization, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46 (46), pp. 23879-23897 - 2021 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
2. Mohamed, W.A.N.W., Singh, B., Mohamed, M.F., Aizuwan, A.M., Zubair, A.B.M., Effects of fuel cell vehicle waste heat temperatures and cruising speeds on the outputs of a thermoelectric generator energy recovery module, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46 (50), pp. 25634-25649 - 2021 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
3. Jia, H., Tang, J., Yu, Y., Sun, Y., Yin, B., Zhang, C., Energy Management Strategy of Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Vehicle Based on Series Fuzzy Control, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 22 (6), pp. 1545-1556 - 2021 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
4. Gunev, D., Iliev, S., The basic geometric parameters of the driving position of a battery electric, prototype class vehicle for the Shell Eco-marathon competition, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2439, art. no. 020002 - 2021 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
5. Stabile, P., Ballo, F., Mastinu, G., Gobbi, M., An ultra-efficient lightweight electric vehicle—power demand analysis to enable lightweight construction (2021) Energies, 14 (3), art. no. 766 - 2021 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
6. Coimbra, M. R. C., Barbosa, T. P., & Vasques, C. M. A., A 3D-printed continuously variable transmission for an electric vehicle prototype†. Machines, 10(2) - 2022 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
7. Balakrishnan, J., & Govindaraju, C., Multi-phase permanent magnet generator with halbach array for direct driven wind turbine: A hybrid technique. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 44(3), 5699-5717. - 2022 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
8. Iliev, S. (2022). Investigation of the gasoline direct injection engine working with ethanol and gasoline in different compression ratios. Paper presented at the AIP Conference Proceedings, 2557 doi:10.1063/5.0104185 - 2022 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
9. Canale, M., Carello, M., Cerrito, F., An Optimal Approach to Energy Management of a Hybrid Fuel-Cell Competition Vehicle (2023), 2023 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2023 - Proceedings, Code 196951 - 2023 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science
10. Cerrito, F., Canale, M., Carello, M., An Optimal Approach to Energy Management Control of a Fuel-Cell Vehicle, (2024), World Electric Vehicle Journal, 15 (2), art. no. 55 - 2024 - в издания, индексирани в Scopus или Web of Science

Вид: пленарен доклад в национален форум с межд. уч., публикация в реферирано издание, индексирана в Scopus